As for the recent status of gram-negative bacteria, despite recent global increase of carbapenem (IPM and MEPM)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the proportion of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Japan remained low at less than 1%; and increment of those resistant organisms were not seen during the observed period. On the other hand, the proportion of Escherichia coli resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, such as Cefotaxime (CTX), and those resistant to fluoroquinolones, such as Levofloxacin (LVFX), increased, calling for an action to address this issue.
The proportion of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella (Enterobacter) aerogenes remained around 1%; and the proportion of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. remained at a level equivalent to or even lower than in other countries. In particular, the proportion of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. remained low between around 1% and 3%.