Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is a spore-forming gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that colonizes the intestines of about 10% of healthy adults. Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes diarrhea at hospitals and long-term care facilities for the elderly. In addition, CDI has been recognized as a cause of diarrhea even in the community.
The CDI incidence rate in Japan is 0.8-4.7 cases per 10,000 patient days, while prevalence is 0.3-5.5 cases per 1,000 admissions. However, consideration must be given to the impact of such factors as the lack of both uniform testing methods and a standardized definition of recurrence, and differences in the average length of admission compared with other countries. The CDI incidence rate among patients with diarrhea is reported to be 7.9 cases per 10,000 patient days. No surveillance of CDI is carried out in Japan. CDI surveillance is due to be launched in 2019 via Japan Surveillance for Infection Prevention and Health‐care Epidemiology (J-SIPHE).