Ohmagari et al. conducted surveys of public awareness concerning antimicrobial resistance in March 2017 and February 2018, funded by a Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare research grant.[29, 30] In both studies, consumers (excluding medical professionals) who had registered with INTAGE Research Inc. to participate in various market research surveys completed an online questionnaire. The 2017 survey had 3,390 respondents and the 2018 survey 3,192. Women comprised 48.8% of respondents in 2017 and 49.7% in 2018, while the average age of respondents was 45.5 years and 45.9 years in 2017 and 2018 respectively. About half of all respondents experienced taking antibiotics because of cold. Similarly, approximately 40% of respondents thought that antibiotics were effective for cold and influenza. Approximately 20% discontinued taking antibiotics based on their own judgment; and approximately 10% kept the remaining antibiotics at home. Among the respondents who kept antibiotics at home, approximately 80% used them based on their own judgment. The trends in responses to the 2017 and 2018 surveys were more or less the same, so ongoing efforts to raise public awareness using a variety of measures are required in order to change attitudes among the public.