Responses were received from 534 respondents, 362 (68%) of whom were veterinarians involved in treating and providing hygiene guidance concerning dairy cows, while 346 (65%) dealt with beef cows, 131 (25%) with pigs, 57 (11%) with chickens, and 47 (9%) with other livestock (multiple answers to the question about the type of livestock dealt with were permitted, so there is some overlap).
Approximately 40% were aware of Japan’s National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, with awareness as high as 60% or more among veterinarians dealing with pigs, chickens, and other livestock. About 80% of respondents were aware of the “Basic concept of the prudent use of veterinary antimicrobial products for the production of animal products” (http://www.maff.go.jp/j/syouan/tikusui/yakuzi/koukinzai.html#prudent_use), in which Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries summarizes basic approaches to ensuring the responsible and prudent use of antimicrobials in the livestock sector. By livestock type, awareness was as high as around 90% or more among veterinarians dealing with pigs and chickens.
Approximately 90% reported that they “Take care in routine practice to restrict the use of antimicrobials to those cases in which they are truly necessary, based on an appropriate diagnosis,” with awareness high among all livestock types. Around 90% stated that they “Have provided guidance on preventing infectious disease through vaccines and improvements in rearing hygiene management, with the objective of reducing opportunities for antimicrobial use,” with awareness highest among veterinarians dealing with pigs and chickens. About 70% of respondents reported that they “Conduct antimicrobial susceptibility tests in routine practice when using antimicrobials,” with awareness highest among veterinarians dealing with pigs. Approximately 60% stated that they are “Aware of what kinds of antimicrobial feed additives are found in feed in the context of treatment using antimicrobials,” with awareness highest among veterinarians dealing with pigs and chickens.