Responses were received from 320 individuals, 141 (44%) of whom were involved in handling cattle, with 94 (29%) handling pigs and 85 (27%) handling chickens. Looking at each topic considered in the questionnaire, approximately 30% of respondents were aware of Japan’s National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), while the proportion aware that “Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria make it harder to treat bacterial infections in both humans and livestock” and that “Using antimicrobials causes antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to increase” was about 80% in both cases. Around 70% of respondents were aware of “Concerns about the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to humans via livestock.” By livestock type, awareness of all topics was highest among pig producers.
Approximately 80% reported being aware that “There is feed which contains antimicrobial feed additives and feed which does not,” while about 80% of respondents who reported being aware of this fact were also aware of “What kind of antimicrobial feed additives the feed contains.” By livestock type, awareness of all these topics was highest among pig producers, but cattle producers accounted for the largest percentage of those responding that they “Have taken steps to reduce the use of antimicrobials by using feed which does not contain antimicrobial feed additives, wherever possible,” at around 50%.
Approximately 90% of respondents reported being aware that “Preventing outbreaks of disease through improvements in the rearing environment and the use of vaccines reduces the use of antimicrobials,” while about 80% of respondents who were aware of this fact had actually taken steps to put such measures into practice. By livestock type, awareness of these topics was highest among pig producers.