Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 13 agents was carried out between 2012 and 2014, but VCM was added in 2015, bringing the number monitored to 14. Among Enterococcus spp. in 2015, resistant strains accounted for between 5.2% (14 out of 269 cattle-derived strains) and 54.1% (91 out of 181 chicken-derived strains) of Enterococcus faecalis, and for between 2.2% (6 out of 269 cattle-derived strains) and 17.1% (31 out of 181 chicken-derived strains) of Enterococcus faecium. Resistance to enrofloxacin (ERFX), which is a critically important antimicrobial for human medicine, was 0.4% in cattle-derived and 13.3% in chicken-derived strains of Enterococcus spp., but whereas the figure for Enterococcus faecalis was 0.0%, the figures for Enterococcus faecium were 16.7% and as high as 71.0%, respectively. No vancomycin (VCM) resistance was observed.