Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 12 agents was carried out between 2012 and 2015 in respect of strains derived from chicken. Resistance to streptomycin (SM), kanamycin (KM), tetracycline (TC), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) exceeding 40% was observed in chicken-derived strains in 2015. On the other hand, cefazolin (CTX) and chloramphenicol (CP) resistance was less than 2% and no resistance to gentamicin (GM) was observed. In the realm of critically important antimicrobials for human medicine, the rate of resistance to cefotaxime (CTX) was 1.6%, but no resistance to colistin (CL) or ciprofloxacin (CPFX) was observed.