Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 13 agents was carried out between 2012 and 2014, but VCM was added in 2015, bringing the number monitored to 14. Resistance to dihydrostreptomycin (DSM), kanamycin (KM), erythromycin (EM), and lincomycin (LCM) in strains isolated from chickens was observed to exceed 40% in 2015, as was oxytetracycline (OTC) resistance in pig- and chicken-derived strains. On the other hand, gentamicin (GM) resistance was less than 10% and no resistance to ampicillin (ABPC) was observed. In the realm of critically important antimicrobials for human medicine, resistance to enrofloxacin (ERFX) ranged between 0.4% and 13.3%, but no resistance to vancomycin (VCM) was observed.