Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 8 agents was carried out between 2012 and 2015. Resistance to streptomycin (SM), tetracycline (TC), nalidixic acid (NA), and ciprofloxacin (CPFX) exceeding 40% was observed in pig-derived strains in 2015. On the other hand, chloramphenicol (CP) resistance was less than 10%. Resistance to CPFX, which is a critically important antimicrobial for human medicine, was 47.7%.