Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 8 agents was carried out between 2012 and 2015. Resistance to tetracycline (TC), nalidixic acid (NA), and ciprofloxacin (CPFX) exceeding 40% was observed in cattle-derived strains in 2015. On the other hand, rates of resistance to streptomycin (SM), erythromycin (EM), and chloramphenicol (CP) were less than 4%, less than 2%, and less than 2%, respectively. Resistance to CPFX, which is a critically important antimicrobial for human medicine, was 40.8% in cattle-derived strains and 26.6% in chicken-derived strains.