Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 12 agents was carried out between 2012 and 2015. Ampicillin (ABPC) and streptomycin (SM) resistance in strains isolated from chickens was observed to exceed 40% in 2015, as was tetracycline (TC) resistance in pig- and chicken-derived strains. On the other hand, cefazolin (CEZ) and gentamicin (GM) resistance was less than 4%. In the realm of critically important antimicrobials for human medicine, resistance rates to cefotaxime (CTX), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and colistin (CL) were respectively less than 3%, less than 5%, and less than 1%.