Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 12 agents was carried out between 2011 and 2015. Ampicillin (ABPC) resistance in strains isolated from broilers was observed to exceed 40% in 2015, as was tetracycline (TC) resistance in pig- and broiler-derived strains. On the other hand, cefazolin (CEZ) and gentamicin (GM) resistance was less than 5%. In the realm of critically important antimicrobials for human medicine, resistance rates to cefotaxime (CTX) and ciprofloxacin (CPFX) were respectively less than 3% and less than 10%, while no resistance to colistin (CL) was observed. The proportion of cefazolin (CEZ)- and cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant strains in broilers had declined from 2012. This decline is perhaps explained by the intervention to related associations: explaining JVARM data and ordering to withdraw the off-label use of third-generation cephalosporin.