Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 13 agents was carried out between 2011 and 2015. Resistance to dihydrostreptomycin (DSM), kanamycin (KM), erythromycin (EM), and tylosin (TS) in strains isolated from broilers was observed to exceed 40% in 2015, as was oxytetracycline (OTC) and lincomycin (LCM) resistance in pig- and broiler-derived strains. On the other hand, no ampicillin (ABPC) resistance was observed, while gentamicin (GM) resistance was below 10%. Resistance to enrofloxacin (ERFX), which is a critically important antimicrobial for human medicine, ranged between 6.8% and 20.2%.