Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 8 agents was carried out between 2011 and 2015. Ampicillin (ABPC) resistance in strains isolated from layers was observed to exceed 40% in 2015, as was tetracycline (TC) resistance in cattle- and broiler-derived strains. On the other hand, streptomycin (SM) resistance was less than 5% and no resistance to erythromycin (EM) or chloramphenicol (CP) was observed. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (CPFX), which is a critically important antimicrobial for human medicine, ranged between 16.1% and 35.6%.