Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 12 agents was carried out between 2012 and 2016. In 2016, antimicrobial resistance in excess of 40% was observed among strains isolated from food-producing animals as follows: ampicillin (ABPC), kanamycin (KM), and nalidixic acid (NA) resistance among cattle and chickens; streptomycin (SM) and tetracycline (TC) resistance among cattle, pigs, and chickens; and colistin (CL), chloramphenicol (CP), and trimethoprim (TMP) resistance among pigs. Resistance rates to all antimicrobials other than cefotaxime (CTX), KM, and NA were observed to be higher in strains isolated from pigs than in those derived from cattle and chickens. Resistance to CTX, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and CL, which are critically important antimicrobials for human medicine, was in the ranges 2.9-7.8%, 8.7-24.5%, and 8.7-56.9, respectively. It must be noted that the BPs of cefazolin (CEZ) and CL were lowered between 2015 and 2016 to bring them into line with the values established by CLSI.