Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on 8 agents was carried out between 2011 and 2016. Ampicillin (ABPC) and tetracycline (TC) resistance in pig-derived strains was observed to exceed 50% in 2016. Resistance rates to all antimicrobials other than gentamicin (GM) were observed to be higher in strains isolated from pigs than in those derived from cattle and chickens. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (CPFX), which is a critically important antimicrobial for human medicine, was 11.1% in pig-derived strains, but less than 4% in strains isolated from cattle and chickens.