Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
The estimated volumes of veterinary antimicrobials sold for aquatic animals (saltwater fish, freshwater fish, and ornamental fish) in terms of active ingredients are summarized in Table. In the period from 2013 to 2016, the estimated volume of sales ranged between 100.09 t and 155.08 t, accounting for between 13.4% and 18.6% of the total volume of veterinary antimicrobial sales. Tetracyclines (ranging between 49.01 t and 57.62 t) took up the largest share in the overall volume of sales of aquatic antimicrobials until 2015, accounting for 43.7% to 49.0%, but the top spot was taken by a macrolide (erythromycin) in 2016, with sales totaling 61.44 t and accounting for 39.6% of the overall volume of sales. The approximately 35 t increase in the volume of sales between 2013 and 2016 was due to a rise in sales of a macrolide (erythromycin), which was attributed to an outbreak of Lactococcus garvieae infection.
Third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones that are important for human health are not approved for aquatic animal use.