Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
The estimated volumes of veterinary antimicrobials sold for food-producing animals (cattle, pigs, horses, chickens, and others) in terms of active ingredients are listed in Table. During the period 2013 to 2016, the estimated volume of sales ranged between 640.25 t and 669.68 t. The approximately 18 t increase in sales over this period was mainly accounted for by increases in penicillins (approximately 24 t), aminoglycosides (approximately 10 t), and 16-membered macrolides such as tylosin (approximately 17 t). Tetracyclines (275.83 tons to 286.74 tons) took up the largest share in the overall volume of sales of antimicrobials for food-producing animals, accounting for 41.9 to 44.0%. In contrast, the volume of sales of the third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones that are important for human health remained about 0.5 tons and 5 tons respectively, accounting for less than 1% of total volume of sales in food-producing animals.