Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
Based on the volumes of sales of antibiotics and synthesized antimicrobials, as reported under the Veterinary Drug Control Regulations, the amounts of veterinary antimicrobials were calculated in terms of active ingredients (unit: tons). In the period from 2013 to 2016, the volume of sales of veterinary antimicrobials ranged between 749.47 t and 832.56 t. The approximately 52 t increase in sales over this period was mainly accounted for by increases in macrolides (approximately 56 t) and penicillins (approximately 22 t). Tetracyclines took up largest share in the overall volume of sales, accounting for 39.8 to 43.6%.
On the other hand, third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, though important drugs for human medicine, accounted for less than 1% of overall volume of sales.