Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS)
Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM)
The proportion of CEZ-resistant E.coli had been higher in humans than that in animals. The proportion had been low in layers (farms), pigs (farms and slaughterhouses), and cattles (farms and slaughterhouses).
The proportion in broilers (farms) had increased until 2012 (data not shown). The proportion in broilers (farms and slaughterhouses) then has decreased since 2012. This is probably due to the withdrawal of the off-label use of the third-generation cephalosporin after the explanation of the JVARM data to related associations. The proportion in humans, on the other hand, had increased from 2011 to 2015, on the contrary to the decreasing trend in broilers.
It is of note that since 2014, BP had been different between humans (8) and animals (32)