A statistical information site that deepens
the understanding of AMR (drug resistance) and one health


A statistical information site that deepens the understanding of AMR (drug resistance) and one health


Types and Abbreviations of Antimicrobials

Type Nonproprietary name Abbreviation*
Beta-lactam antibiotics Penicillins benzylpenicillin(penicillin G) PCG
ampicillin ABPC
ampicillin/sulbactam ABPC/SBT
piperacillin PIPC
oxacillin MPIPC
piperacillin/tazobactam PIPC/TAZ
amoxicillin AMPC
amoxicillin/clavulanic acid AMPC/CVA
Cephalosporins 1st generation cefazolin CEZ
cephalexin CEX
2nd generation cefotiam CTM
cefaclor CCL
3rd generation cefotaxime CTX
ceftazidime CAZ
ceftriaxone CTRX
cefoperazone/sulbactam CPZ/SBT
cefdinir CFDN
cefcapene pivoxil CFPN-PI
cefditoren pivoxil CDTR-PI
cefixime CFIX
4th generation cefepime CFPM
cefpirome CPR
cefozopran CZOP
Cephamycins cefmetazole CMZ
cefoxitin CFX
Oxacephems flomoxef FMOX
latamoxef LMOX
Monobactams aztreonam AZT
Carbapenems meropenem MEPM
doripenem DRPM
biapenem BIPM
imipenem/cilastatin IPM/CS
panipenem/betamipron PAPM/BP
tebipenem pivoxil TBPM-PI
Penems faropenem FRPM
ST sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim ST, SMX/TMP
Macrolides erythromycin EM
clarithromycin CAM
azithromycin AZM
tylosin TS
Ketolides telithromycin TEL
Lincomycins clindamycin CLDM
lincomycin LCM
Streptogramins quinupristin/dalfopristin QPR/DPR
virginiamycin VGM
Tetracyclines minocycline MINO
tetracycline TC
doxycycline DOXY
oxytetracycline OTC
Aminoglycosides streptomycin SM
tobramycin TOB
gentamicin GM
amikacin AMK
arbekacin ABK
kanamycin KM
spectinomycin SPCM
dihydrostreptomycin DSM
Quinolones ◎ciprofloxacin CPFX
(◎fluoroquinolones) ◎levofloxacin LVFX
◎pazufloxacin PZFX
◎norfloxacin NFLX
◎prulifloxacin PUFX
◎moxifloxacin MFLX
◎garenoxacin GRNX
◎sitafloxacin STFX
◎ofloxacin OFLX
◎enrofloxacin ERFX
oxolinic acid OA
nalidixic acid NA
Glycopeptides vancomycin VCM
teicoplanin TEIC
Oxazolidinones linezolid LZD
Polypeptides polymyxin B PL-B
colisitin CL
bacitracin BC
Amphenicols chloramphenicol CP
florfenicol FF
Other antibacterial agents fosfomycin FOM
salinomycin SNM
bicozamycin BCM
Antitubercular antibiotics isoniazid INH
ethambutol EB
rifampicin(rifampin) RFP
pyrazinamide PZA
rifabutin RBT

* Quoted from the Glossary of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Japanese Society of Chemotherapy), the Annual Report of the Japanese Society of Antimicrobials for Animals 36 (2014), and the Guidelines for the Use of Antimicrobial Substances in Cooperative Livestock Insurances (2009, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries)


There are multiple relevant terminologies with different definitions. However, in medical practice, the following four terms are often used interchangeably to refer drugs that act against bacteria: “antimicrobial agents,” “antibiotics,” “antibiotic agents,” and “antibacterial agents.” In the areas of agriculture and livestocks, the expressions "antibacterial agents" and "antimicrobial agents" are commonly used, because these agents are not only used for therapeutic purposes, but also in antibiotic feed additives.

Antimicrobial agents or antimicrobials: Antimicrobial agents, or antimicrobials, are active against microorganisms, which are generally categorized into bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. These are the general term for drugs to treat and prevent infectious diseases. They contain antibacterial agents, antifungal agents, antiviral agents and antiparasitic agents.

Antibacterial agents: Antimicrobial agents that are active against bacteria.

Antibiotics: informally defined as an agent that is derived from living organisms to inhibit and control cell activities of microorganisms.

Antibiotic agents: Another term for drugs that use the antibacterial action of antibiotics.
Reference: the Manual of Antimicrobial Stewardship, 1st edition

In terms of active ingredients (veterinary drugs), in terms of effective value (antibiotic feed additives), in terms of active ingredients (agrochemicals), antimicrobial consumption in terms of potency by weight (humans): Quantities in terms of the weight of active ingredients in veterinary drugs are calculated from sales data collected from marketing authorization holders for the volume of each drug sold. When doing so, the marketing authorization holders also submit estimates of the percentage of sales for each species of domestic animal, so the estimated volumes sold are calculated for each species based on those estimated percentages. As with the figures for veterinary drugs, quantities of antibiotic feed additives in terms of effective value, quantities of agrochemicals in terms of active ingredients, and human antimicrobial consumption in terms of potency by weight refer to active ingredient weight.